Europe has been at the very forefront of telecommunication technology since the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) standard. However, maintaining this position in today’s market has become a tremendous challenge. The growth of the EU’s telecommunication market is decelerating due to high market saturation and declining average revenue per user.2 Furthermore, new international players (e.g., Huawei) are aggressively expanding their global market share at the expense of traditional European equipment vendors, and without dramatic innovation to open up new markets and exploiting new technology innovatively, EU’s telecommunication industr is at risk. Communication for industry 4.0 applications and autonomous driving are some of the examples for such highly promising new use cases that will open up new high-margin telecommunication markets (Figure 1).
Since conventional wireless technologies such as 4G LTE and WiFi on sub-6GHz frequency bands with data rates of at best a few hundred Megabits-per-second (Mbps) are insufficient to meet the high throughput, latency, and reliability demands of such applications, moving to millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies has been under investigation over the past years with the specific purpose of significantly improving network throughput performance and enabling new applications.